TopicHow to reduce your risk of getting diabetes
There are two types of diabetes – Type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and occurs at a younger age or childhood. In these patients there is complete lack of the hormone insulin that mandates external administration of the hormone regularly as treatment.
Around 75% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was earlier termed non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or maturity-onset diabetes mellitus. The number of people with type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing. In type 2 diabetes, not enough insulin is produced or the insulin that is made by the body is insufficient to meet the needs of the body. Obesity or being overweight predisposes to type 2 diabetes.
When food is taken, it is broken down to smaller components. Sugars and carbohydrates are thus broken down into glucose for the body to utilize them as energy source. The liver is also able to manufacture glucose.
In normal persons the hormone insulin, which is made by the beta cells of the pancreas, regulates how much glucose is in the blood. When there is excess glucose in the blood, insulin stimulates cells to absorb enough glucose from the blood for the energy that they need. Insulin also stimulates the liver to absorb and store any glucose that is excess in blood. Insulin release is triggered after a meal when there is rise in blood glucose. When blood glucose levels fall, during exercise for example, insulin levels fall too.